why is benzene carcinogenic

Comparison of Systemic Exposure to Toxic and/or Carcinogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) during Vaping, Smoking, and Abstention. The IARC october 2009 evaluation of benzene carcinogenicity was incomplete and needs to be reconsidered. Benzene rings in general can oxidize in the body with the "help" of the enzyme cytochrome P450. 3, respectively. 2020 Feb;13(2):153-162. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0356. %%EOF Benzene exposure is associated mainly with an increased risk of developing leukemia or lymphoma. The information in this MRL serves as a screening tool to help public health professionals decide where to look more closely to evaluate possible risk of adverse health effects from human exposure. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014. Outdoor air contains low levels of benzene from secondhand tobacco smoke, gasoline fumes, motor vehicle exhaust, and industrial emissions. Summary about a hazardous substance taken from Chapter One of its respective ATSDR Toxicological Profile. This may also explain why nitrobenzene is carcinogenic, since the nitrate group is readily released to yield unsubstituted benzene. EPA calculated a Water from the Tarawa Terrace Treatment Plant was contaminated by PCE (perchloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene). 3, respectively. Triangle Park, NC: National Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, 2016. A component in DNA, called 2'-deoxyguanosine, has an "NH"_2 on it that can act as a nucleophile. endstream endobj startxref International Agency for Research on Cancer. 4. See all questions in Definition of 'Chemistry' and 'Organic'. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. The relationship between benzene exposure and the development of acute myelogenous leukaemia has been established in epidemiological studies. Pure benzene, for example, oxidizes in the body to produce an epoxide, benzene oxide, which is not excreted readily and can interact with DNA to produce harmful mutations. Don’t smoke and avoid exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Benzene. 2018 May 10;30:33. doi: 10.1186/s40557-018-0245-9. Summary: Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. Some industries use benzene to make other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. "Reports linking exposure to benzene with other malignancies were considered to be inadequate for evaluation. Learn about benzene, a component of crude oil and other substances. 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While benzene isn't particularly reactive with most biologically relevant molecules, our enzymes are very effective catalysts and the oxidation products of benzene in the body are potent carcinogens. Cytochrome P450s in the liver and lungs are thought to initially convert it to benzene oxide, which then spontaneously rearranges to phenol. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Exposure to benzene may increase the risk of leukemia and other blood disorders. 652). People are exposed to benzene primarily by breathing air that contains the chemical. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. What is the general formula of a carboxylic acid? It has been found to be a strong carcinogen. Petrol exposure and DNA integrity of peripheral lymphocytes. Similarly, limits on the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline have contributed to reduced exposures. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Two examples of carcinogenic arene oxides are 4,5-benzo[a]pyrene oxide and 7,8-benzo[a]pyrene oxide, and you can find precursors of those in "cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and charcoal-broiled meats" as benzo[a]pyrene (Organic Chemistry, Bruice, pg. Quick reference guide providing information such as chemical and physical properties, sources of exposure, routes of exposure, minimal risk levels, children's health, and health effects for a substance. Medical Management Guideline (MMG) for Acute Chemical Exposure Publication intended to aid emergency department physicians and other emergency healthcare professionals who manage acute exposures. Toluene and xylene. Sometimes benzene, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, more likely, can oxidize in the body to form epoxides, some of which are susceptible to a carcinogenic pathway. Public Health Service. 2011 Feb;54(2):157-64. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20887. Workers in industries that produce or use benzene may be exposed to the highest levels of the chemical, although federal and state regulations have reduced these exposures in recent decades. For more information about this message, please visit this page: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, Health Effects of Exposure to Substances and Carcinogens, Community Environmental Health Education Presentations, Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM), Toxicology Curriculum for Communities Trainer's Manual, Compendium of Papers on MRLs and Health Effects, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Ann Occup Environ Med. Furthermore, there are two reaction pathways the arene oxide can take: rearrangement into a phenol, or simply getting attacked by a nucleophile like 2'-deoxyguanosine. Benzene is produced by both natural and man-made processes. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the nature (e.g. National Toxicology Program. This evaluation now warrants some elaboration and updating. Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Should I call the police on then? Benzene, Safety and Health Topics. Am J Ind Med.  |  Once that happens, the structure of the 2'-deoxyguanosine no longer matches the pocket on the DNA double helix, and basically, that leads to improper gene transcription that can lead to cancerous mutations (Organic Chemistry, Bruice, pg. It is a natural component of crude oil, which is the main source of benzene produced today. Cytochrome P450s in the liver and lungs are thought to initially convert it to benzene oxide, which then spontaneously rearranges to phenol. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides.  |  Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. Why does diethyl ether have the smallest dipole. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Benzene may also be found in glues, adhesives, and paint or cleaning products. "There is sufficient evidence that benzene is carcinogenic to man." What is the IUPAC  This would explain why the substituted forms of benzene are not carcinogens: the substituents prevent the compound from being metabolized to hydroquinone. h�b```b``Vd`�'@ (�K>�7^Ʊ��9úw���:���]:�޹�6�7+�З��Y�;::X@d2��^��р0�����4�Fa`4bf8�]$(#��ː�����A�A�,�9�P&��:Q��o@(���BL��@���A�>X����``�q�(c�` �C3y Comments Related Questions. Fact sheet that answers the most frequently asked questions about a contaminant and its health effects. They don’t always cause DNA errors, but they stop the body repairing those errors which it does make. 1983;110(6):948-54. The MRL is an estimate of the daily human exposure to a hazardous substance that is likely to be without appreciable risk of adverse, non-cancer health effects over a specified duration of exposure. Naidoo RN, Makwela MH, Chuturgoon A, Tiloke C, Ramkaran P, Phulukdaree A. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. Please contact NTP, IARC, or EPA’s IRIS Hotline with questions on cancer and cancer classification.

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