The idea of The Greek outlined by Wagner in contrast to the slave, and re-enforced by Nietzsche, is therefore not only something purely Athenian, but something that can only be understood in relation to the conception of The German. Sympathy interferes with the psychological analysis of great, higher humans. My Account | Both are sick artists who stupefy mass audiences with their spectacular dramatic shows. The culture of the opera has reduced music to the level of entertainment which “has no inkling of the Dionysiac depths of music” (BT §19). Nietzsche admired Wagner's ability to express his own suffering and misery in short musical creations. 2. Full text is available to ProQuest subscribers. When a higher human knows deep, heart–breaking suffering, there develops immunity to receiving sympathy from lower humans. FAQ | Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. 1. Nietzsche, Friedrich (1999), The Birth of Tragedy And Other Writings. French art, like Wagner's, is based on world literature. Psychologists should be cheerfully unsympathetic. > Jahrhunderts revolutioniert, fortwirkend bis heute. Music expresses the decline of a culture. This tumultuous period culminated in the Franco-Prussian war which ended in 1871 and ushered in a new and unified German nation. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. He also thought that Wagner's music expressed a vital life force.  In Aeschylus’s Agamemnon, Cassandra, although a Trojan slave, can be seen as pure Dionysiac force, subjecting the chorus to the unbounded nature of eternity through her visions, while also being a mortal woman limited to Apollonian appearances. Like Wagner, Nietzsche also discusses the idea of slavishness, but instead relates it to “enjoyment of life and cheerfulness” (BT §11), by which he means the Christian understanding of the world that has forgotten the spirit of tragedy from which true artistic expression was born. Unlike Germans, the sick, artistic French appreciate Schopenhauer and Heine because they value pessimistic, refined culture. ( Log Out / The idea of a common Greek identity that spreads beyond the realm of language is therefore merely a nationalistic idealisation; an imagined community formulated in the present and projected upon a past society in order to strengthen the idea of modern national unity. The great human's work, not his own person, should be venerated. Many of these Romantic authors specifically thought of Athens in the fourth and fifth centuries BC to be a model society upon which a new German spirit could be developed. Nietzsche evaluates Wagner's philosophy on tonality, music and art; he admires Wagner's power to emote and express himself, but largely disdains what the philosopher deems his religious biases. 3. Accessibility Statement, Privacy If Parsifal was, however, meant seriously, then it is an expression of Wagner's late hatred of sensuality, egotism, and life. Ronald Speirs. William Ashton Ellis. Nietzsche seems to idolise the Greek as a Dionysiac force, one which is free from slavish presentiments, and one that can serve as the foundation for a new German identity, but the projection of this identity is in itself phantasmagorical. Nietzsche describes in this short work why he parted ways with his one-time idol and friend, Richard Wagner. Nietzsche, in contrast, celebrated the egoistical Dionysian Greek who affirmed life in spite of its many horrors and terrors. He criticized Wagner's attempt to produce large works. He believed a new, pure form of national art must arise through active revolution, one which (like the tragedies of Aeschylus) integrates multiple separate acts, a new shared mythology, and the all-encompassing nature of the musical drama (what he refers to as Gesamtkunstwerk), into the art form in order to provide the foundation of a new national identity among the German people. He excludes Germans from his intended readers. Nietzsche und Wagner. Surface provides description only. Includes an attempt to address the question of why after seven years of friendship, a bitter enmity arose between them.--Preface. Discusses the relationship between Wagner & Nietzsche, and their mutual influence upon each other. This article has aimed to show how it is that Wagner’s ideas in AR influenced Nietzsche to formulate a conception of national character from the pessimistic interpretation of Hellenism, and although Nietzsche later escaped some aspects of his nationalist tendencies, some still remained years later. ( Log Out / Wagner belongs with the French. Following many years of solitude, Zarathustra now wants to share the riches of his wisdom. Wagner, Richard (2002), Art and Revolution. 84. Wagner describes that the Greek soul “lived only in publicity, in the great fellowship of his nation” (AR, 12), and thus, as a public being, the Greek expressed himself through his body at the public bathhouses or gymnasia, and when he is confronted with the drudgery of household labour “he thrust [it] away to Slaves” (AR, 12). In a "Dionysian Dithyramb," Nietzsche used poetic imagery from Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Instead, it is similar to Italy's Roman Catholic religion. Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs Copyright His lungs, feet, stomach, heart, intestines, and throat were uncomfortably affected. To Nietzsche, Greek tragedy implies an inherent pessimism; it doesn’t merely affirm the illusory beauty of the world of appearances, but instead affirms the eternity of the metaphysical world.
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