khapra beetle damage symptoms

An infestation can start in the field (when the cob is still on the plant) but most damage occurs in storage. High humidity slows down population increase. Larval development usually takes 4-6 weeks during which time they moult 4-15 times. Fumigation of grain stocks with phosphine or methyl bromide will control existing infestations but will not protect against re-infestation. Talwana, Makerere University; John R. Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat. Previous U.S. detections of this tiny beetle have required massive, long-term and costly control and eradication efforts. Larvae feed on grains but the beetle does not bore into the grain. Figure 3. Check stored grain and storage facilities regularly for new pests and unusual damage symptoms. They can also develop on animal matter such as dead mice, dried blood and dried insects. Systematic Position: Phylum – Arthropoda Class – Insecta ADVERTISEMENTS: Order – Coleoptera Family – Dermestidae ADVERTISEMENTS: Genus – Trogoderma Species – Granarium Distribution: This pest is cosmopolitan in distribution. Fumigation of grain stocks with phosphine or methyl bromide will control existing infestations but will not protect against re-infestation.Pesticides are poisons so it is essential to follow all safety precautions on labels. and many middle-eastern countries. The eggs, which are loosely scattered in host material, hatch in 3-14 days. The pupal stage lasts 2-5 days and quiescent adult stage 1-2 days. Males are brown to black and females lighter. The pupal stage lasts 2-5 days and quiescent adult stage 1-2 days. (2006). Khapra beetle is found in Africa, India, Russia . Visual inspection can be used but as the beetles crawl into crevices deep into grain stores they can be difficult to detect until numbers become quite large. Although the khapra beetle has a number of natural enemies, no biological control agents have been introduced to control this species. Males are 1.4-2.3mm long, 0.75-1.1mm wide; adult females are 2.1-3.4mm long, 1.7-1.9 mm wide. The most common signs of infestation are larvae and the presence of cast larval skins. © James D. Young, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org. Larvae feed on grains but the beetle does not bore into the grain. The khapra beetle is found in hot dry areas. Established infestations are difficult to control because of the beetle's ability to live without food for long periods of time and to survive on foods of low moistur… The use of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder mixed into maize appears to be an effective and cheap method to control the pest in stored maize. Its feeding damage often spoils 30 percent of the product; up to 70 percent damage has been reported. Damage can be severe with weight losses of between 5-30% and in extreme cases 70%. It is not present in Australia, but it is a highly invasive pest that poses a major threat to Australia’s grains industry. Harvesting the maize as soon as possible after it has reached maturity will reduce the chances of attack by the khapra beetle and other storage pests. There may also be visible signs of damage and waste. Previous U.S. detections of this tiny beetle have required massive, long-term and costly control and eradication efforts. The proportion of seeds that germinated varied from nil when all kernels were damaged to 95% for no damage. Distribution and establishment of. National Plant Diagnostic Network Publication No. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. Values for alcoholic stability and free fatty acids increased. Journal of Stored Product Research 13: 183-202. Banks H.J. The khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts, 1898) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Khapra beetle. Anonymous (2006). The khapra beetle is thought by some to be native to the Indian subcontinent. Banks H.J. Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda (Insecta); Order: Coleoptera; The khapra beetle is thought by some to be native to the Indian subcontinent. Khapra Beetle Trogoderma granarium. Freezing and HeatingWhere the infrastructure exists, freezing for several days and heating for 24 hours have proved to be effective control methods for stored product pests.

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