Under the terms of the marriage treaty between Philip I of Naples (Philip II of Spain from 15 January 1556) and Queen Mary I, Philip was to enjoy Mary's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed. Æthelred was forced to go into exile in mid-1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death in 1014. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in fact two separate crowns resting on the same head. It was not until the late 9th century that one kingdom, Wessex, had become the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom. '... he had become the most powerful regional king in Britain.'. Among them were Harold Godwinson (recognised as king by the Witenagemot after the death of Edward the Confessor), Harald Hardrada (King of Norway who claimed to be the rightful heir of Harthacnut) and Duke William II of Normandy (vassal to the King of France, and first cousin once-removed of Edward the Confessor). In less than a month, "King Louis I" controlled more than half of the country and enjoyed the support of two-thirds of the barons. For British monarchs since the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, see. This is the moment when legend has Alfred burning cakes in a peasant woman's cottage - a tale which was already in existence in the tenth century. Godwinson successfully repelled the invasion by Hardrada, but ultimately lost the throne of England in the Norman conquest of England. Edward VI named Lady Jane Grey as his heir in his will, overruling the order of succession laid down by Parliament in the Third Succession Act. Alfred the Great was Æthelwulf son. He was never crowned. While James and his descendants would continue to claim the throne, all Catholics (such as James and his son Charles) were barred from the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701, enacted by Anne, another of James's Protestant daughters. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) King of Great Britain. This ended the direct Norman line of kings in England. From its humble beginnings through to the most powerful kingdom in the land, we trace its history from Cerdic, the founder of Wessex, through to his distant descendants Alfred the Great and Æthelstan who were responsible for defeating invading Viking hordes and uniting Anglo-Saxon England under a single banner. Alfred the Great was king of Wessex from 871 to 899. William was crowned King William I of England on Christmas Day 1066, in Westminster Abbey, and is today known as William the Conqueror, William the Bastard or William I. Henry I left no legitimate male heirs, his son William Adelin having died in the White Ship disaster. (See family tree.). The English and Scottish parliaments, however, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707 under Queen Anne (who was Queen of Great Britain rather than king). Alfred styled himself King of the Anglo-Saxons from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the English, his rule represents the start of the first unbroken line of kings to rule the whole of England, the House of Wessex.  Nevertheless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's other descendants, the Royal House of Lancaster. Answer to: Who was king before Alfred the Great? The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) saw the throne pass back and forth between the rival houses of Lancaster and York. Charles I was crowned on 2 February 1626. Edward III was crowned on 1 February 1327. " This refers to a period in the late 8th century when Offa achieved a dominance over many of the kingdoms of southern England, but this did not survive his death in 796.. Philip was not meant to be a mere consort; rather, the status of Mary I's husband was envisioned as that of a co-monarch during her reign. After the death of Queen Elizabeth I without issue, in 1603, King James VI of Scotland also became James I of England, joining the crowns of England and Scotland in personal union. The King Alfred Lecture 25 October 2013.  In 1555, Pope Paul IV issued a papal bull recognising Philip and Mary as rightful King and Queen of Ireland. Henry VII was crowned on 30 October 1485. When Henry died, Stephen invaded England, and in a coup d'etat had himself crowned instead of Matilda. He is the best-known Anglo-Saxon king in British history thanks to his biographer Asser (died c. 909 CE) and that work’s impact on later writers. Between 1649 and 1653, there was no single English head of state, as England was ruled directly by the Rump Parliament with the English Council of State acting as executive power during a period known as the Commonwealth of England. King Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, thereby uniting the Lancastrian and York lineages. The Acts of Union 1707 were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into effect the Treaty of Union agreed on 22 July 1706. However he suffered military defeat at the hands of the English fleet. Before naming Matilda as heir, he had been in negotiations to name his nephew Stephen of Blois as his heir. Following the decisive Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, King Edmund signed a treaty with Cnut (Canute) under which all of England except for Wessex would be controlled by Cnut. For example, Offa of Mercia and Egbert of Wessex are sometimes described as kings of England by popular writers, but it is no longer the majority view of historians that their wide dominions are part of a process leading to a unified England. Meantime, the Viking advance slowed down. Alfred was a scholar and encouraged education in the kingdom as well as improving the legal system. They started to parcel out good settling land in East Anglia, in the East Midlands and in Northumbria - land for their armies, for the rank and file. In early 878, Alfred the Great was surrounded in the marshes of Athelney in Somerset, almost finished. He is buried at Winchester in Hampshire. However, Alfred was able to claw back a victory at Edington in Wiltshire that year. An Act of Parliament gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness … in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions" (although elsewhere the Act stated that Mary was to be "sole queen"). Alfred the Great (r. 871-899 CE) was the king of Wessex in Britain but came to be known as King of the Anglo-Saxons after his military victories over Viking adversaries and later successful negotiations with them. During the ensuing Anarchy, Matilda controlled England for a few months in 1141—the first woman to do so—but was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England. Some scholars have suggested that Asser's life of King Alfred was a forgery. The Tudors descended in the female line from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of John of Gaunt (third surviving son of Edward III), by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. But before the end of the year he succeeded in effecting a peace, probably by paying a sum of money to the invaders. After the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, William the Conqueror made permanent the recent removal of the capital from Winchester to London. Henry IV seized power from Richard II (and also displaced the next in line to the throne, Edmund Mortimer (then aged 7), a descendant of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp). No monarch reigned between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum ("King of the English"). Historian Simon Keynes states, for example, that "Offa was driven by a lust for power, not a vision of English unity; and what he left was a reputation, not a legacy. Edward VI was crowned on 20 February 1547.
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